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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作者: 人气:1899

高(gao)速(su)(su)加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)是(shi)(shi)一种可以对加工(gong)工(gong)件进(jin)行(xing)(xing)高(gao)速(su)(su)加工(gong)的(de)一种工(gong)具能够如此快(kuai)速(su)(su)的(de)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)工(gong)件的(de)加工(gong)除(chu)了因为高(gao)速(su)(su)加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)加工(gong)精密(mi)度和成(cheng)熟的(de)技(ji)术之外更多的(de)还是(shi)(shi)得(de)利与其优秀(xiu)的(de)数(shu)(shu)控系统(tong),在当(dang)前的(de)机床加工(gong)行(xing)(xing)业中(zhong)为视(shi)线高(gao)速(su)(su)稳定(ding)(ding)的(de)高(gao)精度加工(gong)运行(xing)(xing)快(kuai)速(su)(su)且(qie)功能强大的(de)计算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控系统(tong)是(shi)(shi)必不(bu)可少,需要注意的(de)是(shi)(shi)高(gao)速(su)(su)加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)数(shu)(shu)控系统(tong)必须(xu)能够足够快(kuai)地(di)处理数(shu)(shu)控程(cheng)序(xu)代(dai)码段以保持程(cheng)序(xu)中(zhong)规定(ding)(ding)的(de)进(jin)给速(su)(su)度。

 

高(gao)速加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心在实际运行中(zhong)(zhong)是(shi)(shi)计算机数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)用于测量(liang)一次工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台的实际位置(zhi)并(bing)发出一次进(jin)给命令(ling)(ling)所用的时(shi)间(jian)(jian),对于伺服周期和代码段处理时(shi)间(jian)(jian)是(shi)(shi)计算机数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)的两个(ge)(ge)重要参数及(ji)其概念。计算机数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)处理并(bing)完成一条(tiao)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)指令(ling)(ling)代码段规定的位移所花费的时(shi)间(jian)(jian)。 计算机数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)的这(zhei)两个(ge)(ge)参数对于高(gao)速加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心来(lai)说非(fei)常重要,因为他们将决定机床(chuang)的加工(gong)(gong)(gong)速度(du)和加工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)。在这(zhei)里(li),精(jing)度(du)意(yi)味着在采用线性插补(bu)时(shi),用直线段来(lai)逼近零件轮廊所允(yun)许的最大误差(cha)。

 

我们可以(yi)(yi)看(kan)到在(zai)高速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统必须(xu)保(bao)证形成精确的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji),另(ling)外(wai),在(zai)用直线段(duan)来逼近零件轮廊时,为了保(bao)证精度,直线段(duan)势必很(hen)短,从(cong)而使得(de)零件程(cheng)(cheng)序变得(de)很(hen)长。基于此,计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统需(xu)要一(yi)个32位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)微(wei)处理(li)器,有时甚至(zhi)需(xu)要多(duo)(duo)个微(wei)处理(li)器,以(yi)(yi)完成高速(su)插补(bu)、高速(su)段(duan)处理(li)和良好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)待(dai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监控(kong)(Look Ahead)功能(neng)。为了能(neng)预先知(zhi)道刀具(ju)路(lu)径(jing)(jing)以(yi)(yi)避免在(zai)拐角 处出现事故,计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统最好(hao)是(shi)(shi)具(ju)有较多(duo)(duo)段(duan)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong) NC代码轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监控(kong)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,这与(yu)司(si)机(ji)必须(xu)有良好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)视野 范围(wei)才能(neng)高速(su)驾驶一(yi)辆(liang)汽(qi)车有些类似。 目(mu)前(qian)(qian)所有较高水平的(de)(de)(de)计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统都(dou)具(ju)有待(dai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监控(kong)能(neng)力。所谓待(dai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监控(kong),就是(shi)(shi)计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统在(zai)控(kong)制加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)同时扫描待(dai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)代码,看(kan)刀具(ju)路(lu)径(jing)(jing)是(shi)(shi)否(fou)有方向(xiang)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)突(tu)然改变,如果计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统发(fa)现前(qian)(qian)面必须(xu)改变进给方向(xiang)时,自动执(zhi)行加(jia)减速(su)程(cheng)(cheng)序,以(yi)(yi)避免高速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心偏离程(cheng)(cheng)序中(zhong)规(gui)定的(de)(de)(de)切削加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)路(lu)径(jing)(jing)。


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